Monday, May 25, 2020
A Critical Review of SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s Differential Association Theory Ryan Herron Dr. Patrick Parnaby SOC 2070 9 November 2017 There are many theories used by Sociologists to explain deviance. One such theory is differential association theory, proposed by Edwin Sutherland. There are many strengths and weaknesses of differential association that will be laid out in this paper after differential association theory is fully explained. When discussed, it becomes apparent that differential association theory has many strengths as well as many weaknesses, with the strength of the weaknesses outweighing that of the strengths. First, differential association theory will be laid out and explained. Sutherland, with differential associationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Sutherland also argues that impersonal factors such as the media, and strangers do not affect one s deviance, but rather it is close, personal peer groups such as close friends and family that have a large effect (Sutherland, 1947; Bereska, 2014; Matsueda, 1988, 2001, OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, 2014, Williams III and McShane, 2013). Finally, the last main tenant of Sutherland s theory is that these associations can vary in time, intensity, frequency, and priority (Sutherland, 1947; Bereska, 2014; Matsueda, 1988, 2001, OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady 2014, Williams III and McShane, 2013), potentially leading to some periods of deviance, and some periods of conformity. Sutherland s theory has evolved through his own later work, co-authored with Donald Cressey, as well through other theorists works including Akers social learning theory developed in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social learning theory developed in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s as well, and Sykes and MatzaÃ¢â¬â¢s neutralization theory in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Differential association is one of the most important and widely used theories in criminology that was pioneering in the use of sociological factors to explain deviance. There are many strong points to SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s differential association theory. One such strength is the simplicity of the theory. One of SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢ s goals with differential association was to replace more complex theories that had many factors involved, down to one alwaysShow MoreRelatedCriminological Theory Of Edwin Sutherlands Differential Association Theory1789 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesI. Introduction: Differential Association Theory is a criminological theory devised by Edwin Sutherland asserting that criminal behavior is behavior learned through association with others who communicate their values and attitudes (Walsh, 559). Summary: We live in a world that is full of choices and some individuals believe we have a choice that is made by ourselves regardless of any influences from outside parties. We have the authority to determine what is right or wrong for our own livesRead MoreDifferential Association Theory By Edwin H. Sutherland969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDifferential Association theory by Edwin H. Sutherland states that criminal behavior is learned. SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is essentially arguing that individuals that engage in criminal activity have learned to engage in criminal activity from association with others. Differential Association theory is broken down into nine propositions. The first proposition is that criminal behavior is learned (Sutherland, 2010). The second proposition states that the interaction with the other person or persons hasRead MoreBad Monkey And The Social Phenomenon Of Crime783 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial Science theories in criminology builds frameworks of empirical evidence which are used to study and interpret the social phenomenon of crime (Callinicos, 1999). Of the many theories developed over the course of the study of the science of criminology, Robert AgnewÃ¢â¬â¢s General Strain and Edwin H. SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s Differential Association theories stood out the most while I indulged in Carl Hiaasen novel Bad Monkey. In this essay I will be using Carl Hiaasen novel Bad Monkey to draw out examples ofRead MoreThe Theory Of Criminal Behavior955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe theory I believe that explains criminal behavior and delinquency the best would be the Differential Reinforcement Theory, reviewed by Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers after it was criticized by C.R. Jeffery. Burgess and Akers argued against SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s work by using what he had used already and adding operant conditioning and modeling/condition in order to explain criminal behavior more clearly. They offered seven propositions to summarize the Differential Reinforcement Theory, which was a justificationRead MoreWhat Causes Deviance And What Is The Definition Of Deviance859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the field of sociology there are various competing theories that attempt to determine what causes deviance and what is the definition of deviance. In an effort to explain why gang membership exists in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, there is one theory that stands out from the rest: SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s differential association. SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s differential association theory explains deviant behavior as something that is Ã¢â¬Å"learned through associationsÃ¢â¬ rather than solely based upon the community that one is fostered inRead MoreThe Problem Of White Collar Criminality918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesarea of criminal statistics exclude upper class crimes. Lastly because the upper class are seen to be Ã¢â¬Ëimmune because of the class bias of the courts and thei[r own personal] powerÃ¢â¬â¢. (Sutherland: 2004: 7) The differential association theory is in some ways flawed as the heart of SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s (1939) approach is based on the concept of learning amongst people who share the same anti criminal or pro criminal values and attitudes. In white collar crime, the offender is typically well educated and hasRead MoreThere Is A Wide Array Of Theories About The Cause Of Crime1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere is a wide array of theories about the cause of crime ranging from predisposition to environmental factors. Research and development of these delinquency theories have progressed and been categorized by biological, psychological, and sociological theories. A major biological theory is Richard DugdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of inheritance. There are several psychological theories with two of them being intelligence theory and Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s personality trait theory. Sociological theories includes Emilie DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Strengths Of Labelling Theory And Differential Associatio n Theory1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLabelling Theory can explain the factor of low socioeconomic status while Differential Association Theory can explain how the factor of family as reasons why some youth join gangs. This paper compares the relative strengths and weaknesses of Differential Association theory and Labelling theory and I argue that Labelling Theory offers the most compelling theoretical perspective to help account for how these factors influence youth to join gangs. I also argue that unlike the other two theories, a MarxistRead More The IQ Debate Essay1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescarried out by Sutherland have looked at the role played by psychological issues and disorders. The Differential Association Theory was a theory on crime and deviancy developed by Edwin Sutherland during the thirties. Unlike other experts like Eleanor and Sheldon Glueck, who stated that deviancy is generated by numerous factors, Sutherland attempted to provide an integrated criminological theo ry to explain the reasons why crime takes place (Marshall, 1994). He argued that crime and deviancy areRead MoreThe Cause Of Crime, Like Many Societal Phenomena, Is A1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The cause of crime, like many societal phenomena, is a source of global contention. Theorists throughout history have repeatedly attempted to deconstruct criminal minds to understand the Ã¢â¬ËwhyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢ of crime. Not only can criminological theory explore the motivations of criminals living and dead; but it can also be a lens through which to examine fictional crime. Animal Kingdom (2010) introduces a criminal family in SydneyÃ¢â¬âlargely responsible for armed robberies and drug crimesÃ¢â¬âfrom the perspective
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Michael Brown and Eric Garner are both victims of police brutality. Mike Brown Jr. life was taken by the hands former police officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri. At the time Michael was 18-year-old and he had been shot at least six times, twice in the head, by a white police officer. His dead body was then left uncovered on the ground for the public view of family and neighbors. The scene was nightmarish. This critical moment in contemporary United States history was not a beautiful beginning. The Department of Justice found that Brown physically attacked Wilson and attempted to grab his gun. Wilson then allegedly shot Brown in self-defense. and the brutal repression against the Ferguson protests that came in response, were sparksÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This figure is up from 35 percent in 1991. Affirmative action in hiring and higher educationÃ¢â¬âan institutional remedy to structural discrimination and another key gain of the movement in the 1960sÃ¢â¬âcontinues to suffer defeats. The latest of these came in April of last year when the Supreme Court upheld a ban on the practice in MichiganÃ¢â¬â¢s public universities. Between 2006Ã¢â¬âwhen the ban was passedÃ¢â¬âand 2012, African American enrollment at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor plummeted by 33 percent while overall student enrollment increased by 10 percent. On the opposite side of the debate many people believe that the movement and phrase Black Lives Matter is wrong and racist itself. They feel that having a movement that only representing one race saying that only their lives matter is not right when all lives matter. Although all lives matter it is redundant. We know that all lives matter but police violence and police brutality disproportionately affect the African American communities not the others. So since all lives matter why is it that justice and laws cannot be applied equally to African Americans? Because racism never dead in America it just has been sugarcoated and done under handedly but by having a movement just as Black Lives Matter it will expose the officers that have using abuse their authority among the African American communities. This movement also has a more immediate prehistory. The most recent
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When a person plans or wants to do something, he or she has a motivation for that specific thing. In other words, when a person does something, that person has a reason why he or she should do that thing. Not always there is a reason to do something, but sometimes may be many reasons that are backing a person to take those actions to do it. This happens not only to humans, or living organisms, but also in nonliving organisms. An example is when a rock which had bounced after it hit the floor while falling down. Scientists may tell some of the reasons why the rock does that kind of action, but they cannot tell all of the reasons that back the rockÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. A similar thing, as the scientists, was Alfie Kohn trying to do in his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"WhyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The reason is that the reward is not the main thing that is backing up the action; but something else that could be self-develop, peace, etc. An example is a boy does his homework just because he was told b y his parents to do his homework. Based on that the boy believes that his parents know what is best for him to do. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is when a person takes actions knowing that at the end of that action there is a reward waiting for him or her. In this case, the person does it not because thinking about self-development, peace, etc. but about the reward. An example could be that the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother will not let the boy watch his favorite cartoons, until he finishes his homework. That way the boy will finish his homework just to be able to watch the cartoons, but does not care if he fully understands the materials on which the homework was about. Third possibility is the both type of motivations, intrinsic and extrinsic, are the reason for someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s action. It is when the person is doing something knowing there is going to be a reward at the end, also during that action the person will develop in skills, professionalism, etc. The example could be taken from the essay that Kohn wrote. The reward that Kohn could have got is being paid for writing the essay, with the main back up that the action will bring development of experiences in writing professionally. Another example could be a man runs in a burning building to save his neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s kid. That manShow MoreRelatedIntrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation Ken 1 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Literature Review AK 11 April 2013 Professor J. Losche PSY-432 Ken 2 Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation help to fit psychological values and beliefs of an individual. Intrinsic motivation comes from the inside of an individual, such as the drive to do something. Extrinsic motivation comes from the outside factors, such as doing something for a reward. There are mixed emotionsRead MoreMotivation, Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation756 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMotivation is a very important factor no matter what sport you coach or what the team or athlete goals are. A true coach must be able to understand their athlete and be able to tap into their motivation, maximizing their performance. Chapter four was written about two particular types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. No matter what theory you believe, all theories boil down to these two types of motivation. Knowing the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, can help you honeRead MoreMotivation - Extrinsic and Intrinsic1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ ESSAY #2 Motivation: Extrinsic to Intrinsic Motivation is a key factor in determining business success or failure. Successful organizations relentlessly seek to operate with a clear understanding of employee needs , and develop specific focusÃ¢â¬â¢ on how to meet them. Two key theories in organizational motivation are expectancy theory and equity theory. Both theories focus on the outcomes of a given decision or system rather than on individual employee needs. The goal of both processRead MoreMotivation : Extrinsic And Intrinsic Factors1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMotivation: An Evaluation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Motivation has been widely studied and particularly explored in organisational behaviour. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two areas of current discourse that have been critically examined for motivating workforce. This paper aims to: define extrinsic and intrinsic motivations; outline the competing views regarding the relationship between the concepts; and, apply the research findings to a workplace observation within the RoyalRead More Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Essay2658 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesIntrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Students are generally classified by two different types of motivation, which are, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These two types of motivation are the basis for a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s action and their view of how they perceive schooling and even life. The first type of motivation is intrinsic motivation, which Ã¢â¬Å"generally refers to motivation to engage in an activity because that activity is enjoyable and satisfying to doÃ¢â¬ (Noels, Pelletier, ClÃ ©ment, Vallerand, pgRead MoreExtrinsic Motivation And Intrinsic Motivation917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthem the help that they need. Our agency has the ability to affect the lives of other people in a positive way, which leads to intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation occurs when the employees have positive internal feelings that are generated by doing well, rather than being dependent on external factors like incentive pay or compliments from the boss, leading to motivation to work effectively. Designing a Motivating Workplace Ã¢â¬â The Job Characteristics Model As stated previously, the five employeesRead MoreEssay on Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation1327 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation Introduction The success of any business depends on the productivity and satisfaction of its employees. Employees need to be motivated to work. Motivation can be defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. Motivation can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. For an individual to be motivated in a work situation there must be a need, which the individual would have to perceive a possibilityRead MoreIntrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in College Students681 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a closer look at how motivation ties in with these intrinsic and extrinsic theories for motivation. It is clear that motivation is one of the most prominent driving forces by which humans pursue and ultimately achieve their goals. Motivation, quite simply, is rooted in the human instinct to minimize pain and maximize pleasure. The characteristics of such a basic theory would usually be about as clear cut as they come. However, motivatio n relies heavily on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal psychology as wellRead MoreIntrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation Essay992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1 Intrinsic Motivation verses Extrinsic Motivation Jakarla Watts Foundation of Online Learning American Public University Sharie Adamson Read More Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Essay1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation can be defined as the desire or inspiration to carry out specific tasks or to do something. Motivation is required when goals are being set and more so in their execution. In a work setting, motivation can be defined as a process through which individuals choose between alternative forms of behavior with the aim of achieving personal objectives. The goals sought by individuals can be extrinsic or relatively tangible such as monetary rewards and promotion, or intrinsic or intangible such
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Is Huck Finn A Racist Book Essay Ever since its publication over a hundred years ago, controversy has swarmed around one of Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular novels, Huck Finn. Even then, many educators supported its dismissal from school libraries. For post Civil-War Americans, the argument stemmed from TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s use of spelling errors, poor grammar, and curse words. In the politically correct 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s however, the point of argument has now shifted to one of the major themes of the book: Racism. John Wallace once said of the book, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the most grotesque version of racist trashÃ¢â¬ ever written. Were TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s archetypal characters and use of vernacular language an assertion of his own racist views, or a critique of the injustice of White society Many readers misinterpret racist remarks by characters in the novel as reflections of TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s own beliefs supporting slavery. These claims, though, can be easily repudiated by some of TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s comparisons between whites and blacks made outside of Huck Finn; for instance when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"One of my theories is that the hearts of men are all alike, all over the world, whatever their skin complexion may beÃ¢â¬ . This brings into question the reason for TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s frequent use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ , not to mention the exceedingly racist views harbored by most characters. It is true that the book is peppered with racist stereotypes, lewd remarks belittling blacks, and the use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ over 200 times, but it is all part of the irony. Twain wrote this book not only to challenge the system of slavery, but also to do so with the most effective of literary devices: the truth. Huck Finn is not racist: It is a profound social statement on the inhumanity of slavery and of every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s born right to freedom. In chapter 32, Aunt Sally and Huck discuss a steamboat explosion: Ã¢â¬Å"Good Gracious! Anyone hurt Ã¢â¬ asks Aunt Sally. Ã¢â¬Å" NoÃ¢â¬â¢m. Killed a nigger. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" Well itÃ¢â¬â¢s lucky; because sometimes people do get hurt. Ã¢â¬ This passage highlights TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s use of satire. On the surface, it could easily be interpreted as dehumanizing and bigoted, but Twain only uses it to reveal the cold truths of white attitudes in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. It also presents the fact that Aunt Polly, one of the simplest and gentlest characters in the book, does not think twice about the violent death of a black person. While disguised as racism, Twain cleverly breaks down white-black relations to the inanities of prejudice. Less subtle are HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s observations of Jim as their relationship progresses. Jim at first is nothing but a source of amusement for Huck, but Huck slowly discovers the real person inside. In Chapter 23, Huck states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I do believe that he cared just as much for his people as white folks does for therÃ¢â¬â¢n. Ã¢â¬ Later, Huck goes even further to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I knowed Jim was really white inside. Ã¢â¬ From Huck, this na e statement was the highest compliment he could have given Jim, and reiterates the idea that a black man can have true emotions and real feelings, something that was not commonly believed at the time. All of this leads to the main point Twain was attempting to make by writing Huck Finn. This book illustrates the possibility of a real friendship across even the strictest social boundaries of race and class. Huck Finn is not only a classic piece of American literature, but also a heartfelt statement against slavery, and a clever ridicule of the duplicity of White America.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Racism is a relatively new term, invented in the modern age when man discovered science. Using his abilities to understand the natural world he began to make theories, and one of the ideas that he created is the concept of race. There are groups of men and women who were created to rule the world Ã¢â¬â they are the masters while others are the slaves. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Racism in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Races were differentiated by physical characteristics and the negative implication of the analysis of physical characteristics led to prejudice, abhorrence, and even hatred towards another human being. Understanding the concept of racism can be achieved by looking at standard definition as well as using analogies such as the way that a biologist can classify different types of animals and the way a an art collector discriminates between different works of art. Before going any fur ther it is imperative to look into a scholarly definition of the term racism. There will be two academic sources that will be consulted for this study. The first one comes from WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s II New College Dictionary and from Encyclopedia Britannica online. From the college dictionary here is the first definition of the word racism: Ã¢â¬Å"The notion that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own ethnic stock is superiorÃ¢â¬ (Webster, p.912). A more lengthy definition comes from the encyclopedia and it says that it is also known as racialism and adds the following: any action, practice, or belief that reflects the racial worldview Ã¢â¬â the ideology that humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢, that there is a causal link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural behavioral features, and that some races are innately superior to others (Smedley, p.1). Based on these definitions one can surmise that racism is a mindset, a belief system governed by the idea that humans were not created equal and can never be treated equal. There are groups of people that must be considered superior to others and therefore there are those that must be treated as inferior. This is based on the ideology that Ã¢â¬Å"humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called racesÃ¢â¬ and thus human beings can be classified in the same way that a biologist can classify different types of animals. And an art collector discriminates between different works of art.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It must also be highlighted that this classification of human beings can only be made possible if the basis for classification is the difference between physical characteristics. The most common method is to look at the color of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s skin as well as differenc es in facial features. But this is not only limited on what can be seen in the external features of the person, racism is also a product of observing the behavioral tendencies of a group of people such as their religious and dietary practices. By looking at the physical characteristics and the religious as well as cultural differences one can easily ascertain that others are not like them. In ancient times there used to be a derogatory term that a rich and powerful civilization used to describe others and they call those who cannot attain their level of sophistication as barbaric and they call citizens of neighboring countries whom they consider inferior to them as barbarians. As a result, Ã¢â¬Å"In North and apartheid South Africa, racism dictated that different Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢ should be segregated from one another, that they should have their own distinct communities and develop their own institution such as churches, schools, and hospitals, and that it was unnatural for memb ers of two Ã¢â¬Ëseparate racesÃ¢â¬â¢ to intermarryÃ¢â¬ (Smedley, p.1) This gave rise to the aforementioned definition of race that others believe in the innate superiority of their race and that they try to impose this worldview on others. This can be best understood in the way that a biologist looks at the natural world. A biologist will classify animals and plants based on their physical characteristics for instance a mammal is different from an insect; a grass is different from a tree. This is because of clear differentiations based on external features. It is not difficult to spot the major differences that exist between a tiger and a whale and an oak tree and a dragonfly. This is the reason why there used to be apartheid in South Africa and segregation in the United States. A classification scheme was developed not to judge animals but humans. The classification scheme was not created to identify and appreciate the differences but to create separation. Aside from a crud e analysis of the physical features there is no clear basis for pigeonholing or stereotyping human beings into different classes or sub-species. However, it is clear why this system was perpetuated. It is to create order and understanding in the same way that a biologist tries to understand the complexity of the natural world. Another way to look at racism is to look into the activities of the art collector and how he creates a standard in order to judge which artwork is much more valuable than others. This time around the basis for comparison is subjective. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Racism in Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are no clear rules because what a collector will consider a worthless piece of creation can be valued highly by others. In other words no one can judge and no one should judge that a group of individuals is of greater importance to other groups. This should not be the c ase but the history of mankind proves otherwise. The methodology used by an art collector is necessary to understand the worth of a artwork and as a result collectors can trade or sell what they own. If a system does not exist then art collection may never have taken off and no one would spend their time searching, examining, and storing art works. This was done to justify their actions. In the same manner, racism and the profiling of tribes, clans, and groups of people into Ã¢â¬Å"racesÃ¢â¬ was done to justify the use of slaves and the use of humans as tools. In the past slavery was a part of American society. This was made possible by the belief that the white race is superior to the Negro race and therefore those with black skin must serve the white man and the white man must no feel a tinge of guilt that they are treating their fellow human beings as if they were beasts of burden. This has created innumerable injustices, not to mention the deaths of many who tried to argue th at there is no such thing as race. One of the most ironic settings of this debate occurred in the United States when founding fathers who led the people into a successful revolution against tyranny wrote the U.S. Constitution and it says there that all men were created equal. This is the reason why they revolted against those who tried to control them and yet after the war for American independence Negro slaves were still oppressed and working the farms without wages, rights, and freedom. Conclusion Racism is the classification of human beings into groups and therefore it creates a belief system that there are those who are superior to others and those who are inferior can be treated with less respect and force to serve others. This is what happened to former Negro slaves who felt the bitter effects of segregation. The same thing can be said of the black men and women of South Africa who had to contend with the fact that the white man had created systems and institutions to perpet uate this belief and to maintain the status quo that blacks are inferior to the whites.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Racism.Ã¢â¬ Def. WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s II New College Dictionary. 2001, print. Smedley, Audrey. Ã¢â¬Å"Racism.Ã¢â¬ Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. This essay on Racism in Society was written and submitted by user Aryanna Osborn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Elizabethan Revenge In Hamlet Essays - English Drama, Free Essays Elizabethan Revenge in Hamlet Hamlet is a play written by William Shakespeare that very closely follows the dramatic conventions of revenge in Elizabethan theater. All revenge tragedies originally stemmed from the Greeks, who wrote and performed the first plays. After the Greeks came Seneca who was very influential to all Elizabethan tragedy writers. Seneca who was Roman, basically set all of the ideas and the norms for all revenge play writers in the Renaissance era including William Shakespeare. The two most famous English revenge tragedies written in the Elizabethan era were Hamlet, written by Shakespeare and The Spanish Tragedy, written by Thomas Kyd. These two plays used mostly all of the Elizabethan conventions for revenge tragedies in their plays. Hamlet especially incorporated all revenge conventions in one way or another, which truly made Hamlet a typical revenge play. ?Shakespeare?s Hamlet is one of many heroes of the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage who finds himself grievously wronged by a powerful figure, with no recourse to the law, and with a crime against his family to avenge.? Seneca was among the greatest authors of classical tragedies and there was not one educated Elizabethan who was unaware of him or his plays. There were certain stylistic and different strategically thought out devices that Elizabethan playwrights including Shakespeare learned and used from Seneca?s great tragedies. The five act structure, the appearance of some kind of ghost, the one line exchanges known as stichomythia, and Seneca?s use of long rhetorical speeches were all later used in tragedies by Elizabethan playwrights. Some of Seneca?s ideas were originally taken from the Greeks when the Romans conquered Greece, and with it they took home many Greek theatrical ideas. Some of Seneca?s stories that originated from the Greeks like Agamemnon and Thyestes which dealt with bloody family histories and revenge captivated the Elizabethans. Seneca?s stories weren?t really written for performance purposes, so if English playwrights liked his ideas, they had to figure out a way to make the story theatrically workable, relevant and exciting to the Elizabethan audience who were very demanding. Seneca?s influence formed part of a developing tradition of tragedies whose plots hinge on political power, forbidden sexuality, family honor and private revenge. ?There was no author who exercised a wider or deeper influence upon the Elizabethan mind or upon the Elizabethan form of tragedy than did Seneca.? For the dramatists of Renaissance Italy, France and England, classical tragedy meant only the ten Latin plays of Seneca and not Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. ?Hamlet is certainly not much like any play of Seneca?s one can name, but Seneca is undoubtedly one of the effective ingredients in the emotional charge of Hamlet. Hamlet without Seneca is inconceivable.? During the time of Elizabethan theater, plays about tragedy and revenge were very common and a regular convention seemed to be formed on what aspects should be put into a typical revenge tragedy. In all revenge tragedies first and foremost, a crime is committed and for various reasons laws and justice cannot punish the crime so the individual who is the main character, goes through with the revenge in spite of everything. The main character then usually had a period of doubt , where he tries to decide whether or not to go through with the revenge, which usually involves tough and complex planning. Other features that were typical were the appearance of a ghost, to get the revenger to go through with the deed. The revenger also usually had a very close relationship with the audience through soliloquies and asides. The original crime that will eventually be avenged is nearly always sexual or violent or both. The crime has been committed against a family member of the revenger. ? The revenger places himself outside the normal moral order of things, and often becomes more isolated as the play progresses-an isolation which at its most extreme becomes madness.? The revenge must be the cause of a catastrophe and the beginning of the revenge must start immediately after the crisis. After the ghost persuades the revenger to commit his deed, a hesitation first occurs and then a delay by the avenger before killing the murderer, and his actual or acted out madness. The
Saturday, February 22, 2020
ART101 CA - Essay Example lain sculptor, architect, painter, engineer, and poet and he has been considered one of the most prominent artists throughout centuries (Gilbert, Ã¢â¬Å"MichelangeloÃ¢â¬ ). He was born in 1474 in the Republic of Florence and died in 1564 in Rome. Michelangelo came from the minor nobility, which had lost its status before the famous sculptor was born. However, the Buonarroti family and Michelangelo himself, were proud of their origin and ties with Counts of Canossa who claimed to have imperial blood (Ã¢â¬Å"Michelangelo-BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). When Michelangelo was born the family lived in Caprese, a small town in Florence where his father was a governor. The family later moved to Florence, Ã¢â¬Å"a centre of thought, of culture, and of tradeÃ¢â¬ at that time (Ã¢â¬Å"Michelangelo-BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). There, at the age of 13 Michelangelo became an apprentice to Domenico Ghirlandaio, one of the most famous local artists in Florence. He finished his apprenticeship in three years since there was hardly anything left to learn. After that his life was closely to Lorenzo de Medici, who earned his fame for his patronage of art. While living in his house, Michelangelo practiced carving from marble and refined his talent. He went to Rome around 1497 by invitation of the Cardinal of St.Georgio, but came back home around 1501. While staying in Florence, the sculptor created David presumably in1501-1504. He then returned to Rome around 1508 to create many of his masterpieces, including Sistine ChapelÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings, there till 15 27, when he took part in the revolt against the Medici in Florence. After Medici regained the power over Florence, Michelangelo was searched to be put to death, but the protection of the Pope Clement saved his life. Michelangelo went to Rome around 1534 and never returned home. He was in service of the Popes and created The Last Judgement at that period. Michelangelo died in 1564 and was buried in Florence. His life was closely connected to the dramatic changes of the historic